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GA AVIATOR
28-02-10, 20:34 PM
These are the ICAO Airspace Categories which are used Worldwide, so the same rules apply throughout the World as set out below.


OVERVIEW

The UK has now adopted the ICAO system for naming of airspace types from A to G. However in the UK there is at present no Class C airspace. Classes A to E are called Controlled airspace, Classes F and G, uncontrolled airspace. The airspace is summarised in the diagram ATTACHED below:


Controlled Airspace

Class A Airspace:

*

VFR flight is not permitted in Class A airspace, but in a CTR (Control Zone) Special VFR flight is permitted. Thus for all Class A airspace other than in Control Zones, flight must be conducted under IFR and the pilot in command must have a valid instrument rating (not IMC rating).
*

An ATC service is provided to all traffic in this airspace, and all flights are separated from each other. A flight plan must be filed, and a clearance obtained from ATC. The clearance and any other ATC instructions must be followed.
*

Two-way communications are required.

Class A airspace forms:

*

The London Control Zone (CTR) around London Heathrow Airport and the Channel Islands Control Zone (CTR)
*

The TMAs (Terminal Control Areas) around London and Manchester
*

All of the UK airway system up to FL245 except those airways lying within the Belfast CTR/TMA and the Scottish TMA.
*

The CTAs of Daventry, Cotswold & Worthing

Class B Airspace:

*

Both VFR and IFR flight is permitted in this class of airspace, but due to its altitude it is of little practical concern to light aircraft.
*

An ATC service is provided to all traffic in this airspace, and all flights are separated from each other. A flight plan must be filed, and a clearance obtained from ATC. The clearance and any other ATC instructions must be followed.
*

Two-way communications are required. In the UK, all Class B airspace forms the UIR (Upper Flight Information Region) which extends from FL245-FL660.

Class C Airspace:

No airspace in the UK is currently designated as Class C, however in Ireland, USA and other countries, much of the controlled airspace is Class C.

Class D Airspace:

*

Both VFR and IFR flight is permitted in this class of airspace
*

An ATC service is provided to all traffic in this airspace, and IFR flights are separated from each other. Information on conflicting VFR flights is provided by ATC to IFR traffic. Information is provided to VFR flights about other VFR and IFR flights, to enable pilots to effect their own separation.
*

A flight plan must be filed (although this may usually be done by passing flight details over the radio before entering), and a clearance obtained from ATC. The clearance and any other ATC instructions must be followed.
*

Two-way communications are required.

Class D airspace is established in the form of CTRs and CTAs around the larger airfields in the UK, such as Aberdeen, Birmingham, Bournemouth, Brize Norton, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, London Gatwick, Luton, London Stansted, Newcastle, Solent and Tees-side.

Class E Airspace:

*

Both VFR and IFR flight is permitted in this class of airspace
*

An ATC service is provided to all IFR traffic and communicating VFR traffic in this airspace.
*

All IFR flights are separated from each other. Information on conflicting VFR flights is provided by ATC to IFR traffic. ATC separation not provided to VFR traffic. Traffic information is provided on request to VFR flights about other VFR and IFR flights, to enable pilots to effect their own separation.
*

For IFR flights a flight plan must be filed (although this may usually be done by passing flight details over the radio before entering), and a clearance obtained from ATC. The clearance and any other ATC instructions must be followed.
*

For VFR flights, there are no requirements, but pilots are encouraged to contact ATC and comply with instructions.
*

Two-way communications are required for IFR flights only.

Very little Class E airspace is established in the UK. These areas are the Belfast TCA, the Scottish TMA and a small part of the Tees-side CTR.

Uncontrolled Airspace

Class F Airspace:

*

Both VFR and IFR flight is permitted in this class of airspace
*

An Air Traffic Services (ATS) service is provided to participating IFR traffic and to communicating VFR traffic as appropriate in this airspace.
*

Participating IFR flights are separated from each other.
*

For participating IFR flights a flight plan must be filed (although this may usually be done by passing flight details over the radio before entering), and a clearance obtained from ATC. The clearance and any other ATC instructions must be followed.
*

For VFR flights, there are no requirements. However if a pilot wishes to use the airspace under VFR he should file a flight plan. He will then receive an advisory service.
*

Two-way communications are required for participating IFR flights only Class F airspace is established in the UK in the form of Advisory Routes (ADRs). These are similar to airways, having a width of 10Nm. They are established in areas where traffic levels are not high enough to warrant an airway, but where regular scheduled services still operate (eg Scottish Highlands).

Class G Airspace:

*

Both VFR and IFR flight is permitted in this class of airspace
*

An Air Traffic Services (ATS) service is provided to traffic as appropriate in this airspace. This usually means a flight information service only.
*

No traffic separation is normally provided. However some ATC units are able to provide a separation between known traffic in Class G airspace.
*

No communications are required in the open FIR (eg outside Aerodrome Traffic Zones (ATZs).

Class G airspace forms the remainder of the UK airspace, including many (ATZs) and Military Aerodrome Traffic Zones (MATZs). Class G airspace also forms the airspace above FL660.

Control Zones (CTRs):

A control zone (CTR) is an area of controlled airspace extending from the surface to a notified upper altitude or flight level. They are usually established around busier airfields, and can be of Class A, D or E

Control Areas (CTAs):

A control area (CTA) is an area of controlled airspace extending upwards from a notified lower altitude or flight level to a notified upper level. They are usually established around and above busier airfields, and can be of Class A, D or E. The main CTAs are the airway system (Class A), the CTAs of Daventry, Worthing and Cotswold (Class A), the CTAs of smaller airfields such as Aberdeen, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Isle of Man, Gatwick etc (Class D), and the CTAs of Belfast and Scottish (Class E). Two types of CTA have special names:

*

Airways An airway is in fact a Control Area (CTA) in the shape of a corridor along which IFR flights proceed. They are nearly always of Class A airspace, and are straight lines, usually between two radio-navigation aids or waypoints. They are 10Nm in width and extend from a notified lower level to a notified upper level or FL245. They are named using a letter and a number, for example B1 (Bravo One) or G715 (Golf Seven One Five). Where an airway enters a TMA, CTR or CTA that is not Class A, then the airway adopts the class of airspace of that area (Belfast & Scottish CTR/TMAs). Above FL245 they become upper airways and their name will be prefixed by a U. For example UA25 (Upper Alfa Two Five). Upper airways are always Class B airspace.
*

Terminal Control Areas (TMAs) These CTAs used to be called Terminal Manoeuvring Areas, hence the abbreviation. They are formed around the busiest airfields in the UK where many airways meet and much IFR traffic is climbing and descending to and from the main airports.

At present in the UK there are 4 TMAs:

*

London (Class A from 6000 to FL245)
*

Manchester (Class A) Belfast (Class E)
*

Scottish (Class E up to 6000, Class D above)

Other types of airspace are:

Aerodrome Traffic Zones (ATZs)

An ATZ is an area of airspace that is established around most UK civil and military airfields. They extend from the surface to an altitude of 2000 above aerodrome level (aal). They are centred on the mid-point of the longest runway and have a radius of either 2 or 2.5 Nm. If the longest runway is 1850m or less in length, then the radius is 2 Nm, over 1850m then 2.5 Nm. If the end of any runway is less than 1.5 Nm from the edge of the ATZ, then its radius is usually extended to 2.5 Nm.


An ATZ is not allocated a particular class of airspace, they simply adopt the same airspace as that around them. Thus the ATZ for London Heathrow would be Class A and that for Blackbushe or Redhill would be Class G.

Rule of the Air 39 states that

*

An aircraft shall not fly, take off or land within the ATZ of an aerodrome ..... unless the commander of the aircraft has obtained the permission of the ATC unit at the aerodrome ..... or flight information unit ..... or air/ground unit at that aerodrome to enable the flight to be conducted with safety.

Thus although the ATZ may be in Class G airspace and as such be uncontrolled, permission is still required to operate within.

Military Aerodrome Traffic Zones (MATZs):

A MATZ is an area of airspace that is established around most UK military airfields. They extend from the surface to an altitude of 3000 above aerodrome level (aal). They are centred on the mid-point of the longest runway and have a radius of either 5 Nm. The MATZ may have one or more stubs projecting from the circular area extending from altitude 1000 aal to 3000 aal extending out to 10Nm and of width 4 Nm and aligned with a runway final approach path.


A MATZ is not allocated a particular class of airspace, it simply adopts the same airspace as that around it, usually Class G.

Inside the MATZ is an ATZ. MATZs rarely operate 24 hours a day, but the ATZ within is usually active 24 hrs. Although it is not compulsory to ask permission before entering a MATZ, permission must always be sought before entering the ATZ inside.

Danger, Restricted and Prohibited Areas:

In addition to the Classes of airspace discussed above, there are also areas of airspace that are restricted or dangerous for some reason.

Prohibited Areas:

Plain and simple flight within the vertical and lateral limits of the area is Prohibited. You must not fly there under any circumstances. Prosecution may result if these areas are entered.

Danger Areas:

These are established where, for whatever reason, a hazard exists to flying. Although not technically prohibited, flight within active danger areas is not recommended. Each danger area has a controlling authority, whose frequency can be found at the bottom of the chart you are using. Some danger areas, have a * before the name. This indicates that there are laws prohibiting entry while active, and so such danger areas should be treated as prohibited. Prosecution may result if these areas are entered.

Restricted Areas:

These are other areas in which some kind of restriction to flying exists. Often, there is a reference to a note at the bottom of the chart which explains the restriction.

Other Airspace Areas:

Areas of Intense Aerial Activity (AIAA):

These are areas where many aircraft will be found (both civil and military) and may be hazardous as a result. A good lookout must be maintained in these areas. Sometimes a frequency is listed for information.

High Intensity Radio Transmission Areas (HIRTA):

Areas are shown in which there is danger of interference with radio equipment or possible danger to health as a result of high intensity radio transmissions. These areas are not prohibited, but time inside such areas should be kept to a minimum.

meggark
28-02-10, 20:45 PM
Good Post, moved to FAQs.

VinceG
28-02-10, 21:34 PM
Could it be an article mark?

Jiggles
01-03-10, 13:26 PM
So what's changed?
John

GA AVIATOR
01-03-10, 16:16 PM
So what's changed?
John

Nothing has changed with regards to Class Airspace......... but as I was asked about Class E Airspace in Poland and as it is ICAO regulated I put the Classes up in a thread which Mark has kindly turned into a FAQ and article.

ANDY1973
01-03-10, 19:10 PM
Peter,

I'm afraid that you are a bit confused in the information you have published above. Since the adoption of the ICAO system, the UK's airspace structure has changed quite significantly, and whilst your data would have been correct some years ago it now contains some very significant errors. For example, there is now no Class B airspace, and quite a lot of Class C. I'm happy to provide a correction in the future, but for the time being I think it may be wise to remove this as an article.

Andy

meggark
01-03-10, 19:47 PM
Andy, if you give me a list of errors I can update any that require it.

Jiggles
01-03-10, 20:03 PM
I think that wiki is up to date http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airspace_class

John

GA AVIATOR
01-03-10, 21:41 PM
Peter,

I'm afraid that you are a bit confused in the information you have published above. Since the adoption of the ICAO system, the UK's airspace structure has changed quite significantly, and whilst your data would have been correct some years ago it now contains some very significant errors. For example, there is now no Class B airspace, and quite a lot of Class C. I'm happy to provide a correction in the future, but for the time being I think it may be wise to remove this as an article.

Andy





I am almost certain that my info is up to date, but am open to be enlightened by what changes have been made

ANDY1973
02-03-10, 00:25 AM
Peter,

The changes to classifications of UK airspace were made to bring us into line with the ICAO definitions as part of the ECAC harmonisation process. Details of the introduction of Class C airspace to the UK (and the removal of Class B) was detailed in AIC 1/2007. The definitive source document for the classifications of UK airspace is the AIP. The following extract is taken from the En-Route section of the AIP (1-4-1) dated 14 Dec 2009;

"1. Air Traffic Services Airspace Classification
1.1 Within the UK FIR and UIR, Airspace is classified as A, C, D, E, F and G in accordance with ICAO Standards, subject to the
Differences notified at GEN 1.7. The Airspace Classifications are described in subsequent paragraphs."

The document is available from the NATS website (search for IAIP).

Hope that is enlightening and up to date - You're going to have to be up to speed with the UIR when you start your altitude record attempts :-)

Jiggles
02-03-10, 01:32 AM
Andy, is wiki's definition right and up to date? In which case we can scrub the whole of this useless thread and post an up to date air space thread ;-)

John

ANDY1973
02-03-10, 08:39 AM
Here's the link to the AIP entry, which has the same info as Peter's article but will be kept up to date.

http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com/aip/current/enr/EG_ENR_1_4_en.pdf

GA AVIATOR
02-03-10, 14:51 PM
Andy, is wiki's definition right and up to date? In which case we can scrub the whole of this useless thread and post an up to date air space thread ;-)

John

John,
I am just a tad upset that you choose to use the word useless in your descriptive post, the article is as up to date as the AIP showed on my last look (you more than likely don't ever look at the AIP ?) Why don't you just stick to posting your jokes on the BMAA Forum and not come on here trying to pick holes in whatever is posted !!!! This forum is run smoothly and now I see ripples coming from your snide comments, so please refrain from trying to upset the apple cart eh !

Perhaps your time could be spent better by trying to devote some time to getting your flexwing back in the air, or are you too busy clearing tables !

VinceG
02-03-10, 15:22 PM
GA Aviator. You can make your point Without shouting

Jiggles
02-03-10, 18:19 PM
Peter, Any information that is out of date is useless; anyone that requires relevent information for a flight would hopefully look it up from the source, not rely on one of your postings, so why not post a link to the up to date info? You question wether I consult the AIP, yes when it's relevent to a flight, you obviously haven't since at least Dec '09
I know you were trying to hurt or be demeaning when you wrote "Why don't you just stick to posting your jokes on the BMAA Forum" and "Perhaps your time could be spent better by trying to devote some time to getting your flexwing back in the air, or are you too busy clearing tables !" but I shall rise above it.
In regards to "Ripples" what ripples? If I hurt or upset someone I would apologies profusely as that would not have been my intention; I enjoy the forums for their information, debates, views and opinions but must surely be allowed an opinion as well without being denegrated for it? My questions in this post are purely rhetorical and therefore are not in need of a reply. Let's leave it at that.
John

GA AVIATOR
02-03-10, 21:19 PM
John ( Jiggles ) I will admit that I haven't looked at the AIP since mid December 2009 purely because I hadn't needed to...... been too busy doing other things pertaining to aviation, contrary to your opinion I know that quite a few have been grateful for the content of the majority of my posts.
Furthermore it would seem that no matter how busy I am, I will always find time to help fellow aviators out........ I can sit back and relax knowing I have made enough knowledgeable contributions to fellow flyers that have been gratefully received.

Lets just beg to differ eh.

ANDY1973
03-03-10, 01:24 AM
Gentlemen,

It would appear that the original information posted has been out of date since at least April 2007. But as the Americans would say "No Harm, No Foul"! The major change to the airspace doesn't affect microlighters unless they happen to fly above FL 185 on a regular basis.

Peter - I have no doubt that it was your sincere intent to provide useful information to the microlight community when you posted the information above. However, I think this illustrates the pitfalls of pasting information from sites without providing some idea as to the provenance of the info.

Andy

VinceG
03-03-10, 09:19 AM
Thread closed. Article deleted.